Deprecated: Function Elementor\DB::is_built_with_elementor is deprecated since version 3.2.0! Use Plugin::$instance->documents->get( $post_id )->is_built_with_elementor() instead. in /home/drdoutuv/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5379

Treatment of Lymphoma

Treatment of Lymphoma
Treatment of Lymphoma

Treatment of Lymphoma 

 Lymphoma is cancer that begins in infection-fighting cells of the immune system, called lymphocytes. These cells are in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and other parts of the body. When you have lymphoma, lymphocytes change and grow out of control.

https://www.videosprofitnetwork.com/watch.xml?key=a08654b1e8a2c73f8751ccfb26c1c05e

There are two main types of lymphoma:

  • Non-Hodgkin: Most people with lymphoma have this type.
  • Hodgkin

Non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma involve different types of lymphocyte cells. Every type of lymphoma grows at a different rate and responds differently to treatment.

Lymphoma is very treatable, and the outlook can vary depending on the type of lymphoma and its stage. Your doctor can help you find the right treatment for your type and stage of the illness.

Lymphoma is different from leukemia. Each of these cancers starts in a different type of cell.

https://www.videosprofitnetwork.com/watch.xml?key=a08654b1e8a2c73f8751ccfb26c1c05e

Lymphoma is also not the same as lymphedema, which is a collection of fluid that forms in body tissues when there is damage or blockage to the lymph system.

Causes

Scientists don’t know what causes lymphoma in most cases.

You might be more at risk if you:

  • Are in your 60s or older for non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Are between 15 and 40 or older than 55 for Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Are male, although certain subtypes may be more common in females
  • Have a weak immune system from HIV/AIDS, an organ transplant, or because you were born with an immune disease
  • Have an immune system disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, lupus, or celiac disease
  • Have been infected with a virus such as Epstein-Barr, hepatitis C, or human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (HTLV-1)
  • Have a close relative who had lymphoma
  • Were exposed to benzene or chemicals that kill bugs and weeds
  • Were treated for Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the past
  • Were treated for cancer with radiation

Symptoms

Warning signs of lymphoma include:

  • Swollen glands (lymph nodes), often in the neck, armpit, or groin that are painless
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Itching

Many of these symptoms can also be warning signs of other illnesses. See your doctor to find out for sure if you have lymphoma.

Getting a Diagnosis

Before you have any tests, your doctor will want to know:

  • How have you been feeling?
  • When did you first notice changes?
  • Do you have pain? Where?
  • How is your appetite?
  • Have you lost any weight?
  • Do you feel tired or weak?
  • What are your current medical problems and treatments?
  • What is your past medical history including conditions and treatments?
  • What is your family medical history?

Your doctor will do a physical exam, including a check for swollen lymph nodes. This symptom doesn’t mean you have cancer. Most of the time, an infection — unrelated to cancer — causes swollen lymph nodes.

You might get a lymph node biopsy to check for cancer cells. For this test, a doctor will remove all or part of a lymph node, or use a needle to take a small amount of tissue from the affected node.

You might also have one of these tests to help diagnose, stage, or manage lymphoma:

  • Bone marrow aspiration or biopsy. Your doctor uses a needle to remove fluid or tissue from your bone marrow — the spongy part inside bone where blood cells are made — to look for lymphoma cells.
  • Chest X-ray. It will be done using low doses of radiation radiation to make images of the inside of your chest.
  • MRI. A technician will use powerful magnets and radio waves to make pictures of organs and structures inside your body.
  • PET scan. This imaging test uses a radioactive substance to look for cancer cells in your body.
  • Molecular test. This test is used to find changes to genes, proteins, and other substances in cancer cells to help your doctor figure out which type of lymphoma you have.
  • Blood tests. These check the number of certain cells, levels of other substances, or evidence of infection in your blood.

Questions for Your Doctor

  • What type of lymphoma do I have?
  • What stage is my lymphoma?
  • Have you treated people with this kind of lymphoma before?
  • What are my treatment options?
  • How will the treatments make me feel?
  • What will help me feel better during my treatment?
  • Are there any complementary treatments I could consider along with the usual medical care? Are there any I should avoid?

Treatment of lymphoma

The treatment you get depends on what type of lymphoma you have and its stage.

The main treatments for non-Hodgkin lymphoma are:

  • Chemotherapy, which uses drugs to kill cancer cells
  • Radiation therapy, which uses high-energy rays to destroy cancer cells
  • Immunotherapy, which uses your body’s immune system to attack cancer cells
  • Targeted therapy that targets aspects of lymphoma cells to curb their growth

The main treatments for Hodgkin lymphoma are:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy

If these treatments don’t work, you might have a stem cell transplant. First you’ll get very high doses of chemotherapy. This treatment kills cancer cells, but it also destroys stem cells in your bone marrow that make new blood cells. After chemotherapy, you will get a transplant of stem cells to replace the ones that were destroyed.

Two types of stem cell transplants can be done:

  • An autologous transplant uses your own stem cells.
  • An allogeneic transplant uses stem cells taken from a donor.

Taking Care of Yourself

Lymphoma treatment can cause side effects. Talk to your medical team about ways to relieve any symptoms you have.

Also ask your doctor about changes to your diet and exercise that can help you feel better during your treatment. Ask a dietitian for help if you’re not sure what types of food to eat. Exercises like walking or swimming can relieve fatigue and help you feel better during treatments like chemotherapy and radiation. You might also try alternative therapies like relaxation, biofeedback, or guided imagery to help relieve pain.

What to Expect

Treatments have improved a lot, and many people do very well after treatment. Your doctor will talk to you about a survivorship care plan.  Your outlook depends on:

  • The kind of lymphoma you have
  • How far the cancer has spread
  • Your age
  • The type of treatment you get
  • What other health problems you have

Getting Support (Resources)

You can get support from people who have gone through this kind of illness.

Contact the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society or Lymphoma Research Foundation to learn more.

Understanding Hodgkin Lymphoma — the Basics

What Is Hodgkin Lymphoma?

Hodgkin lymphoma, also known as Hodgkin’s disease, is a type of lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphatic system.

The lymphatic system is a network of nodes (knots of tissue) connected by vessels that drain fluid and waste products from the body. The lymph nodes act as tiny filters, straining out foreign organisms and cells.

The lymphatic system also is involved in producing important white blood cells called lymphocytes that help protect you against various infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. When the lymphatic system is fighting an active infection, you may notice that some of your lymph nodes and tissue in the area of the infection become swollen and tender. This is the body’s normal reaction to infection.

Lymphoma occurs when the lymph node cells or the lymphocytes begin to multiply uncontrollably, producing malignant cells that have the abnormal ability to invade other tissues throughout your body.

The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are classified by certain unique characteristics of the cancer cells.

Hodgkin disease is most common in two different age groups: young adults (ages 15 to 35) and older adults (over age 50). It is somewhat more common in males than females, and more common in Caucasians than in African-Americans. Because of progress in treating Hodgkin lymphoma, most people with a diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma will be long-time

What Causes Hodgkin Lymphoma?

The exact cause of Hodgkin lymphoma is not known, but the following have been implicated:

Viruses: The Epstein-Barr virus, the same virus that causes infectious mononucleosis (mono), has been implicated as a cause of Hodgkin lymphoma. The presence of the genome of this virus is seen in 20%-80% of Hodgkin lymphoma tumors.

Familial: Same-sex siblings and an identical twin of a person with Hodgkin lymphoma are at high risk of developing the disease. Children with a parent who has Hodgkin are also at an increased risk.

Environment: Fewer siblings, early birth order, single-family homes, and fewer playmates are associated with an increased risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma — possibly due to a lack of exposure to bacterial and viral infections at an early age.

 

Understanding Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma — the Basics

What Is Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma?

Lymphoma refers to a malignancy of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of nodes (knots of tissue) connected by vessels. Together, the lymph nodes drain fluid and waste products from the body. The lymph nodes act as tiny filters, removing foreign organisms and cells.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that helps fight infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. The lymph node function is to prevent infections from entering the bloodstream. When the lymphatic system is fighting an active infection, you may notice that some of the lymph nodes in the area of the infection become swollen and tender. This is the body’s normal reaction to an infection.

Lymphoma occurs when the lymph-node cells or the lymphocytes begin to multiply uncontrollably, producing cancerous cells that have the abnormal capacity to invade other tissues throughout the body. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The differences in these two types of lymphoma are certain unique characteristics of the different lymphoma cells.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is further classified into a variety of subtypes based on the cell of origin (B-cell or T-cell), and the cell characteristics. The subtype of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma predicts the necessity of early treatment, the response to treatment, the type of treatment required, and the prognosis.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is much more common than Hodgkin lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the seventh most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma increases with age and it is more common in males than in females and in Caucasians. North America has one of the highest incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

What Causes Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma?

The exact cause of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown. However, there are multiple medical conditions that are associated with an increased risk of developing the disease:

  • Inherited immune deficiencies
  • Genetic syndromes: Down syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome (a genetic condition in men caused by an extra X chromosome)
  • Immune disorders, and their treatments: Sjögren’s syndrome (an immune disorder characterized by unusual dryness of mucous membranes), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Celiac disease, a disease involving the processing of certain components of gluten, a protein in grains
  • Inflammatory bowel disease, particularly Crohn’s disease, and its treatment
  • Psoriasis
  • Family history of lymphoma
  • Bacteria: Helicobacter pylori, associated with gastritis and gastric ulcers; Borrelia burgdorferi, associated with Lyme disease; Campylobacter jejuni; Chlamydia psittaci
  • Viruses: HIV, HTLV-1, SV-40, HHV-8, Epstein Barr virus, hepatitis virus
  • Non-random chromosomal translocations and molecular rearrangements

Other Factors Include:

  • Regular exposure to certain chemicals, including insect and weed killers, and a number of chemicals used in industries such as farming, welding, and lumber
  • Exposure to nuclear accidents, nuclear testing, or underground radiation leaks
  • Treatment with immunosuppressant drugs, for prevention of organ transplantation rejection, or for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders
  • Tumor necrosis factor agents used to treat psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease
  • Prior exposure to chemotherapy and/or radiation used to treat a prior diagnosis of cancer
  • Treatment with a medication called Dilantin (phenytoin), commonly used to treat seizure disorders
  • Use of hair dyes, especially dark and permanent colors, used before 1980 (research is inconclusive)
  • High levels of nitrates found in drinking water
  • Diets high in fat and meat products
  • Ultraviolet light exposure
  • Alcohol intake

What Are Myelodysplastic Syndromes?

Myelodysplastic syndromes are a rare group of disorders in which your body no longer makes enough healthy blood cells. You might sometimes hear it called a “bone marrow failure disorder.”

Most people who get it are 65 or older, but it can happen to younger people, too. It is more common in men. The syndromes are a type of cancer.

Some cases are mild while others are more severe. It varies from person to person, depending on the type you have, among other things. In the early stages of MDS, you may not realize anything is even wrong. Eventually, you may start to feel very tired and short of breath.

Other than stem cell transplants, there is no proven cure for MDS. But there are a number of treatment options to control symptoms, prevent complications, help you to live longer, and improve the quality of your life.

What Does My Bone Marrow Do?

Your bones obviously support and frame your body, but they do more than you might realize. Inside them is a spongy material called bone marrow, which makes different types of blood cells. They are:

  • Red blood cells, which carry oxygen in your blood
  • White blood cells of different types, which are key elements of your immune system
  • Platelets, which help your blood to clot
  •  

Your bone marrow should make the right number of these cells. And these cells should have the correct shape and function.

When you have myelodysplastic syndrome, your bone marrow isn’t working the way it should. It makes low numbers of blood cells or defective ones.

Who Is More Likely to Get MDS?

About 12,000 Americans get different types of myelodysplastic syndrome each year. The chances of getting it become higher as you age.

Some other things that raise your chance of getting MDS include:

Cancer therapy: You can get this syndrome 1 to 15 years after receiving certain forms of chemotherapyor radiation. You may hear your doctor or nurse call this “treatment-related MDS.”

You might be more likely to get MDS after treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia in childhood, Hodgkin’s disease, or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Cancer drugs linked to MDS include:

Tobacco:Smoking also raises your chance of getting MDS.

Benzene: This chemical with a sweet odor is widely used to make plastics, dyes, detergents, and other products. Too much contact with this chemical is linked to MDS.

Inherited conditions: Some conditions passed on from your parents increase your chances of having myelodysplastic syndrome. These include:

  • Down syndrome. Also called trisomy 21, children with this are born with an extra chromosome that can hamper mental and physical growth.
  • Fanconi anemia. In this condition, the bone marrow fails to make enough of all three types of blood cells.
  • Bloom syndrome. People with this condition rarely are taller than 5 feet and easily get a skin rash from sunlight.
  • Ataxia telangiectasia. This affects the nervous and immune systems. Children who have it have trouble walking and staying balanced.
  • Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. This keeps your body from making enough white blood cells.

Blood diseases: People with various disease of the blood have a greater chance of getting MDS. They include:

  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: This life-threatening disorder affects your red blood cells (which carry oxygen), white blood cells (which help fight infection), and platelets (which help your blood clot).
  • Congenital neutropenia: People with this don’t have enough of a certain kind of white blood cell, so they easily get infections.

Symptoms

Often, myelodysplastic syndromes cause no symptoms early in the disease. But its effect on different types of blood cells can cause warning signs that include:

  • Constant tiredness. This is a common symptom of anemia, caused when you don’t have enough red blood cells
  • Unusual bleeding
  • Bruises and tiny red marks under the skin
  • Paleness
  • Shortness of breath when you’re exercising or being active

Call your doctor if you have these symptoms and concerns about MDS.

Diagnosis

To figure out whether you have one of the myelodysplastic syndromes, your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and history of other health problems. They might also:

  • Do a physical exam to check for other possible reasons for your symptoms
  • Take a sample of blood to count the different types of cells
  • Get a sample of bone marrow for analysis. They or a technician will insert a special needle into your hip bone or breastbone to remove the sample.
  • Order a genetic analysis of cells from the bone marrow

What’s My Type of MDS?

Several conditions are considered to be types of myelodysplastic syndrome.

Doctors consider a number of things when figuring out which kind of MDS a person has. These include:

How many types of blood cells are affected. In some types of myelodysplastic syndrome, only 1 kind of blood cell is abnormal or low in number, such as red blood cells. In other kinds of MDS, more than 1 type of blood cell is involved.

The number of “blasts” in the bone marrow and blood. Blasts are blood cells that didn’t mature fully and don’t work properly.

Whether the genetic material in the bone marrow is normal. In one type of MDS, the bone marrow is missing a portion of a chromosome.

Does MDS Get Worse?

The type of myelodysplastic syndrome you or a loved one has will determine the progress of the disease.

With some types, you’re more likely to develop acute myeloid leukemia. Also called AML, it’s when your bone marrow makes too much of a certain type of white blood cell. It can get worse quickly if it’s not treated.

With most types of MDS, the chance of leukemia is much lower.

Your doctor can talk to you about the specific type of myelodysplastic syndrome you have and how it’s likely to affect your health and life.

Other things that affect your case include:

  • Whether or not the myelodysplastic syndrome developed after earlier cancer treatment
  • How many blasts are found in your bone marrow

Treatments

Your doctor will decide on a treatment for your myelodysplastic syndrome that depends on the type of MDS you have and how severe it is.

You and your doctor may just take a watchful waiting approach. Your doctor might just want to do regular check-ups if your symptoms are mild and your blood counts are holding up OK.

Other times, you might get what your doctor may call a “low-intensity treatment.” These may include:

  • Chemotherapy drugs. These are also used for treating leukemia.
  • Immunosuppressive therapy. This treatment tries to stop your immune system from attacking your marrow. That can eventually help you rebuild your blood count.
  • Blood transfusions. These are common, safe, and might help some people with low blood counts.
  • Iron chelation. You can get too much iron in your blood if you have a lot of transfusions. This therapycan reduce how much of that mineral you have.
  • Growth factors. These man-made hormones “encourage” your bone marrow to make more blood cells.

Finally, you might need a “high-intensity treatment.”

  • Stem cell transplant. This is the only treatment that can actually cure myelodysplastic syndrome. Your doctor will order a series of chemotherapy or radiation sessions to destroy cells in your bone marrow. You’ll then get stem cells from a donor. Stem cells can come from bone marrow or they can come from blood. These cells then start to make new blood cells in your body.
  • Combo chemotherapy. This is when you may get several types of chemotherapy and is considered “high intensity.”

What Is lymphoma

Lymphoma is cancer that begins in infection-fighting cells of the immune system, called lymphocytes. These cells are in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and other parts of the body. When you have lymphoma, lymphocytes change and grow out of control.

There are two main types of lymphoma:

  • Non-Hodgkin: Most people with lymphoma have this type.
  • Hodgkin

Non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma involve different types of lymphocyte cells. Every type of lymphoma grows at a different rate and responds differently to treatment.

Lymphoma is very treatable, and the outlook can vary depending on the type of lymphoma and its stage. Your doctor can help you find the right treatment for your type and stage of the illness.

Lymphoma is different from leukemia. Each of these cancers starts in a different type of cell.

  • Lymphoma starts in infection-fighting lymphocytes.
  • Leukemia starts in blood-forming cells inside bone marrow.

Lymphoma is also not the same as lymphedema, which is a collection of fluid that forms in body tissues when there is damage or blockage to the lymph system.

Causes

Scientists don’t know what causes lymphoma in most cases.

You might be more at risk if you:

  • Are in your 60s or older for non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Are between 15 and 40 or older than 55 for Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Are male, although certain subtypes may be more common in females
  • Have a weak immune system from HIV/AIDS, an organ transplant, or because you were born with an immune disease
  • Have an immune system disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, lupus, or celiac disease
  • Have been infected with a virus such as Epstein-Barr, hepatitis C, or human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (HTLV-1)
  • Have a close relative who had lymphoma
  • Were exposed to benzene or chemicals that kill bugs and weeds
  • Were treated for Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the past
  • Were treated for cancer with radiation

Symptoms

Warning signs of lymphoma include:

  • Swollen glands (lymph nodes), often in the neck, armpit, or groin that are painless
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Itching

Many of these symptoms can also be warning signs of other illnesses. See your doctor to find out for sure if you have lymphoma.

Getting a Diagnosis

Before you have any tests, your doctor will want to know:

  • How have you been feeling?
  • When did you first notice changes?
  • Do you have pain? Where?
  • How is your appetite?
  • Have you lost any weight?
  • Do you feel tired or weak?
  • What are your current medical problems and treatments?
  • What is your past medical history including conditions and treatments?
  • What is your family medical history?

Your doctor will do a physical exam, including a check for swollen lymph nodes. This symptom doesn’t mean you have cancer. Most of the time, an infection — unrelated to cancer — causes swollen lymph nodes.

You might get a lymph node biopsy to check for cancer cells. For this test, a doctor will remove all or part of a lymph node, or use a needle to take a small amount of tissue from the affected node.

You might also have one of these tests to help diagnose, stage, or manage lymphoma:

  • Bone marrow aspiration or biopsy. Your doctor uses a needle to remove fluid or tissue from your bone marrow — the spongy part inside bone where blood cells are made — to look for lymphoma cells.
  • Chest X-ray. It will be done using low doses of radiation radiation to make images of the inside of your chest.
  • MRI. A technician will use powerful magnets and radio waves to make pictures of organs and structures inside your body.
  • PET scan. This imaging test uses a radioactive substance to look for cancer cells in your body.
  • Molecular test. This test is used to find changes to genes, proteins, and other substances in cancer cells to help your doctor figure out which type of lymphoma you have.
  • Blood tests. These check the number of certain cells, levels of other substances, or evidence of infection in your blood.

Questions for Your Doctor

  • What type of lymphoma do I have?
  • What stage is my lymphoma?
  • Have you treated people with this kind of lymphoma before?
  • What are my treatment options?
  • How will the treatments make me feel?
  • What will help me feel better during my treatment?
  • Are there any complementary treatments I could consider along with the usual medical care? Are there any I should avoid?

Treatment

The treatment you get depends on what type of lymphoma you have and its stage.

The main treatments for non-Hodgkin lymphoma are:

  • Chemotherapy, which uses drugs to kill cancer cells
  • Radiation therapy, which uses high-energy rays to destroy cancer cells
  • Immunotherapy, which uses your body’s immune system to attack cancer cells
  • Targeted therapy that targets aspects of lymphoma cells to curb their growth

The main treatments for Hodgkin lymphoma are:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy

If these treatments don’t work, you might have a stem cell transplant. First you’ll get very high doses of chemotherapy. This treatment kills cancer cells, but it also destroys stem cells in your bone marrow that make new blood cells. After chemotherapy, you will get a transplant of stem cells to replace the ones that were destroyed.

Two types of stem cell transplants can be done:

  • An autologous transplant uses your own stem cells.
  • An allogeneic transplant uses stem cells taken from a donor.

Taking Care of Yourself

Lymphoma treatment can cause side effects. Talk to your medical team about ways to relieve any symptoms you have.

Also ask your doctor about changes to your diet and exercise that can help you feel better during your treatment. Ask a dietitian for help if you’re not sure what types of food to eat. Exercises like walking or swimming can relieve fatigue and help you feel better during treatments like chemotherapy and radiation. You might also try alternative therapies like relaxation, biofeedback, or guided imagery to help relieve pain.

What to Expect

Treatments have improved a lot, and many people do very well after treatment. Your doctor will talk to you about a survivorship care plan.  Your outlook depends on:

  • The kind of lymphoma you have
  • How far the cancer has spread
  • Your age
  • The type of treatment you get
  • What other health problems you have

Getting Support (Resources)

You can get support from people who have gone through this kind of illness.

Contact the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society or Lymphoma Research Foundation to learn more.